- Polio (up to date)
- Tetanus (up to date)
- Hepatitis 'A' (Gamma Globulin, or Havarix)
Disease and illness
Malaria is not a problem in the major tourist centres like Hua Hin . However it is wise to take sensible precautions to avoid insect bites at all times.
In most houses windows are usually fitted with nets to allow air in, whilst keeping out the bugs. To avoid insect bites the use of an insect repellent is recommended.
HIV - AIDS
This disease is generally transmitted by the sharing of hypodermic needles or by sexual contact. If you do require an injection of any kind, watch carefully to see that the doctor or nurse uses a new syringe and needle. Generally this is the normal practice, but it pays to be careful. Condoms are widely available throughout the country.
Dengue fever and dengue hemorrhagic fever
These diseases are endemic in Southeast Asia. They are caused by dengue virus from the bite of aedes mosquito that lives in the houses and their neighborhood. This mosquito bites during the day time. Dengue infection in local people, mostly children, often results in fever with bleeding in the skin and other organs (dengue hemorrhagic fever) which is sometime fatal; but for travelers from non-endemic areas, the infection usually manifests as fever with rash in the skin, severe headache and muscle and pains (dengue fever), which is usually non-fatal.
Dengue infection is common in the rainy season (approximately May to September in Thailand) when aedes mosquito is abundant. Travelers visiting local households or their vicinity, especially in the rainy season, should be using mosquito repellent even in the day time. Ones who are ill with symptoms suspected of dengue infection should seek medical consultation to establish the cause of the illness.
Rabies can be found mainly in dogs . Although Thailand has been working toward elimination of the disease and the situation has been much improved, travelers are recommended to take prevention if their travel itineraries allow possible exposure to animal bites. Those who plan walking sight-seeing in local communities should consider having pre-exposure rabies vaccination before starting off. Three intramuscularly injections of cell-culture rabies vaccine are required. In case of exposure to animals without prior vaccination, the pose-exposure vaccination is usually effective if it is initiated without delay. However, for those who have had pre-exposure vaccination, if they are bitten, they should also seek prompt consultation with the physician for evaluation and consideration for booster vaccination.
Typhoid fever has become uncommon among Thai people. However, travelers should not neglect taking prevention against this food and water borne disease. Precaution measures for diarrhea, as mentioned later, are effective for typhoid as well. It is also recommended that the travelers receive typhoid vaccination, in injectable or oral form, before start of the journey. However, those who need initiation or booster vaccination can find the service at most hospitals and clinics in Thailand.
Diarrhea is mostly caused by ingestion of food and drinks contaminated with bacteria or viruses. To prevent diarrhea, avoid uncooked food and drink only boiled or bottled or carbonated water. Food served at street vendors should be considered at risk. Fresh vegetables and fruits should be adequately washed with clean water. Fresh salad should be taken only from a salad bar or a restaurant of hygienic standard. You should not drink tap water.
If your diarrhea gets worse or does not improve within 12-24 hours, consult the physicians for proper investigation and treatment.
Bacterial diarrhea (travelers’ diarrhea) is a food- or water-borne disease that is contracted when you eat food or drink water, ice or milk contaminated with the disease. The risk of contracting bacterial diarrhea occurs year-round.
Hepatitis A is a food- or water borne disease that can make you sick for a month or more. The disease is contracted when you eat food or drink water, ice or milk contaminated with the disease. The risk of contracting bacterial diarrhea occurs year-round. Receiving the Hepatitis A vaccine can eliminate the risk of contracting Hepatitis A.
Hepatitis B is a sexually transmitted disease that affects your liver. Hepatitis B is a serious disease caused by a virus that attacks the liver. The virus, which is called hepatitis B virus (HBV), can cause lifelong infection, cirrhosis (scarring) of the liver, liver cancer, liver failure, and death. Receiving the Hepatitis B vaccine can eliminate the risk of contracting Hepatitis B.